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Return to normalcy
Return to normalcy, central campaign slogan of Republican nominee Warren G. Harding’s successful campaign for the presidency of the United States in 1920. Harding’s slogan and platform, calling for disengagement from foreign intervention and for a return to business as usual, were offered as an antidote for the widespread sense of upheaval among Americans in the aftermath of World War I and in response to the deadly influenza pandemic of 1918–19, significant labour unrest, a series of race riots, and the Red Scare and resultant Palmer Raids. A war- and world-weary electorate handed the U.S. senator and former newspaperman a landslide victory over his Democratic challenger and fellow Ohioan, James M. Cox, making Harding the 29th U.S. president (1921–23).
Post-World War I turmoil in the United States
The final years of Woodrow Wilson’s presidency had been tumultuous. After being reelected in 1916 at least partly because he had kept the United States out of war, Wilson then led the country into the conflict in 1917. He mobilized millions of American troops to face death not only on the battlefields in Europe but also in the barracks back home as the influenza pandemic of 1918–19 swept through the ranks on the way to claiming an estimated 25 million lives worldwide.
Although the U.S. involvement in the war had not necessitated formal domestic rationing, government encouragement of homemakers to self-sacrifice had resulted in so-called Meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wednesdays, and Pork-less Thursdays and Sundays. But, if the war effort had disrupted daily routines on the American home front, it was nothing compared with the dramatic changes brought about by the flu pandemic, which claimed some 550,000 U.S. lives. Schools, churches, theatres, banks, restaurants, saloons, pool halls, and dance halls were closed as the country tried to stanch the spread of the virus. Attendance was limited or prohibited at funerals. Americans were encouraged to wear masks. After abating in the final months of 1918, the pandemic came roaring back as a final wave in the winter and spring of 1919.
During the war, labour disputes in the coal, steel, and transportation industries were settled by the National War Labor Board, resulting in improved wages and working conditions, but, when the board was disbanded following the war, management in some industries sought to roll back labour’s gains. In September 1919, steelworkers organized by the American Federation of Labor launched a massive strike that eventually involved more than 350,000 workers. Accompanied by violence, the “Great Steel Strike of 1919” unfolded in a generally anti-labour atmosphere stoked by a fear of bolshevism unleashed by the October (1917) Revolution in Russia. By January 1920 the strike was over and had proved to be a major defeat for the U.S. labour movement.
The Red Scare that heated up in response to solidification of the Soviet state and its supposed designs on exporting revolution to the United States also led to the anti-communist Palmer Raids of 1919–20. Ordered by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, the raids were aimed at arresting communist and anarchist radicals. On one day, January 2, 1920, raids were conducted in more than 30 cities, resulting in the arrest of perhaps as many as 10,000 individuals. Many of those apprehended in the Palmer Raids proved to be guilty of nothing except being immigrants.
Racial tensions were also running high after the war. African Americans had begun the Great Migration to Northern cities to fill jobs vacated by servicemen. Returning white veterans, having sacrificed for their country, were angered to see their jobs taken by African Americans. Returning black veterans, having sacrificed for their country, were confronted again with racial discrimination and inequality. In the South a revival of violence by the Ku Klux Klan resulted in 64 lynchings in 1918 and 83 in 1919. A perfect storm waiting to happen, the summer of 1919 became known as “Red Summer” not because of any association with communism but because bloody race riots erupted in some two dozen American cities, from Longview, Texas, to Omaha, Nebraska, to Washington, D.C., with the worst occurring in Chicago, where violence raged for 13 days and led to 38 deaths.
Warren G. Harding’s pledge to “return to normalcy”
Thus, American society was in many ways in turmoil in early June 1920, when the Republican Party chose a dark-horse candidate, first-term senator Harding, as its presidential nominee on the 10th ballot at its convention in Chicago. The genial Harding had positioned himself as a safe choice and as someone who could soothe the country’s jangled nerves. His running mate, Massachusetts Gov. Calvin Coolidge, had earned a reputation as a champion of law and order for his forceful response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919.
Near the beginning of his long-shot campaign for the nomination, while road-testing themes for his candidacy, Harding used both the terms normality and normalcy in searching for the right word to convey the state of affairs he as the potential president hoped to establish. He settled on normalcy, which prompted some observers to question whether the unfamiliar word was made up by the candidate. It was not and had appeared in dictionaries since at least the 1850s.
Harding provided a fuller explanation of his vision of normalcy in a speech in Boston in May 1920, when he said:
America’s present need is not heroics, but healing; not nostrums, but normalcy; not revolution, but restoration; not agitation, but adjustment; not surgery, but serenity; not the dramatic, but the dispassionate; not experiment, but equipoise; not submergence in internationality, but sustainment in triumphant nationality.
“Return to normalcy” became the slogan and theme for Harding’s candidacy in the 1920 general election, a “front porch” campaign conducted from his home in Marion, Ohio, after the fashion of Ohio Republican William McKinley’s successful pursuit of the presidency in 1896. Promising an “America first” policy, Harding eschewed the internationalism so ardently and exhaustively championed by Wilson. Harding opposed American participation in the League of Nations; his democratic challenger, James M. Cox, supported it. Harding also struck a pro-business stance that was a marked departure from the progressivism of Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt before him. The electorate, apparently ready for an end to tension and upheaval, handed Harding a commanding victory as he captured more than 60 percent of the popular vote and tallied 404 electoral votes compared with 127 for Cox.
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